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Sunday, March 7, 2010


1.1 Introduction to Information and Communication Technology Define ICT.

* ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning.

According to the European Commission, the importance of ICTs lies less in the technology itself than in its ability to create greater access to information and communication in underserved populations. Many countries around the world have established organizations for the promotion of ICTs, because it is feared that unless less technologically advanced areas have a chance to catch up, the increasing technological advances in developed nations will only serve to exacerbate the already-existing economic gap between technological "have" and "have not" areas. Internationally, the United Nations actively promotes ICTs for Development (ICT4D) as a means of bridging the digital divide.

 Describe the brief evolution of computers.

Describe the brief EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS.

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices.Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computer operate,resulting in increasingly smaller,cheaper,more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

First generation computers (1940-1956)-During the first generation,computers were with vacuum tubes.Vacuum tube is an electronic tube is made of glass used as computer components to store and process data.The problems of vacuum tubes are generates lots of heat that can damage computer and tubes can burnt out frequently.ENIAC is the first generation computer that contains weights of 30 tons,18000 vacuum tubes,30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power.Advantages of computers in this era:The using of vacuum tubes that can store and process data.

Second generation computers (1956-1963)-Transistors were used to replace vacuum tubes in computers.Transistors are small devices that transfer electronic signal across resistor.One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes.Transistors do not produced lots of heats and use less power.Transistors were faster,cheaper and smaller than vacuum tubes.The new computers were faster,smaller and more reliable than the first generation machines.Advantages of computers in this era:The using of transistors were better than vacuum tubes.

Third generation computers (1964-1971)-In 1964,computer manufacturers began replacing transistors with integrated circuits.An integrated circuit (IC) is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip made of silicon.These computers were more reliable and compact than computers made with transistors,and they cost less to manufacture.Advantages of computers in this era:Integrated circuits were reliable,compact and cheaper than transistors.

Fourth generation computers (1971-Present)-The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers,as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.The Intel 4004 chip,developed in 1971,located all the components of the computer-from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls-on a single chip.Advantages of computers in this era:Computers are 100 times smaller than ENIAC computers in first generation.

Fifth generation computers (Present and beyond)- Fifth generation computing devices,based on artificial intelligence,are still in development,though there are some applications,such as voice recognition,that are being used today.



  • Teachers (for teaching material)

  • Students (as reference tools)

  • Researches (collect & process data)

  • School administrators (for administrative purpose)


  • Bank administrators (can control banking system & activities)

  • Customers (can make any transaction at 24 hours service centres)

  • Businessman (save time by using online services)


  • Workers (help operate machines)

  • Researchers (analyze & collect research data for future references)

  • Administrators (to oversee & control entire operations in the factory)


  • Make buying & selling activities faster and more efficient through Internet.

  • Connect online the customers with suppliers to purchase products.

  • Help suppliers to keep track of their transactions.

  • Help employees to communicate with their customers.

1.4 State the differences between COMPUTERISED AND NON-COMPUTERISED systems.



All banking activities are done by using computer system

All banking activities were done manually

Transaction can be done anywhere and anytime

Transaction can be made during working hours.

It takes shorten time for any banking process

It takes long time for any banking process

More productive

Less productive


Positive impact

  • Faster communication speed

  • Lower communication cost

  • Can share opinions and information

  • Information and communication can be borderless through Internet.

Negative Impact

  • Borderless information at any time can be negative because it courage people to access pornography and violence web sites.It can cause low moral values.It also can created problems such as gambling,information theft and fraud.

  • Computers can harm users if they use for long hours frequently.


2.1 State the DEFINITION of

  1. Computer ethics-is a system of moral standards or moral values used as a guideline for computer users

  2. Code of ethics- is guideline in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical

  3. Intellectual property-is works created by inventors,authors and artists

  4. Privacy- right of individuals & companies to deny or restrict the collection & use of information about them

  5. Computer crime-is any illegal acts involving computers

  6. Cyber law-is any laws relating to protect the Internet and other online communication technologies

2.2 Differentiate between ETHICS and LAWS.



As a guideline to computer users

As a rule to control computer users

Computer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics

Computer users must follow the regulations and law

Universal,can be applied anywhere,all over the world

Depend on country and state where the crime is committed

To produce ethical computer users

To prevent misuse of computers

Not following ethics are called immoral

Not obeying laws are called crim State the need for intellectual property laws.

Intellectual property law cover ideas ,inventions,literary creations,inique names,business modals,industrial processes,computer program codes and many more.

Four types of Intellectual Property are :

  1. Patents for inventions

  2. Trademarks for brand identity

  3. Design for product appearance

  4. Copyright for materials List ways to protect privacy.

  1. Purchase goods with cash,rather than credit card.

  2. Install personal firewall.

  3. Clear your history file when you are finished browsing.

  4. Have unlisted telephone number.

  5. Fill in only necessary information on warranty and registration form. State authentication and verification technologies :

Authentication is a process where user verifies their identify. Authentication deals with the problem of determining whether a user should be allowed access to a particular system.Four commonly authentication methods :-
  • User identification

  • Possessed objects

  • Biometric devices

  • Callback system User identification, Possessed Objects, Biometric devices

  1. User identification (something you know-have to remember)

User identification is a unique combination of characters (letter,number or symbol) that identify specific user.

Examples of user identification are :

  • pin number

  • password

b. Possessed objects (something you have-an object)

A possessed object is any item that you must carry to gain access to computer or computer facility.

Examples of possessed objects are :

  • ATM card

  • credit card

  • key

  • smart card

  • security token

c. Biometric device (something you are-part of users body)

Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for authentication purposes.

Biometric device is a device that translates personal characterictic into digital code stored in the database.

Examples of biometrics devices are :

  • fingerprint reader

  • hand geometry reader

  • iris scanner

  • signature

  • verification system Describe the process of filtering to control access to controversial contents.


the PROCESS OF FILTERING to control access to controversial contents.

The method of choce to limit access on the Internets to filter either by

  1. Keyword blocking.The method uses a list of banned word or objects terms such as xxx,sex and nude.As the page is downloading,the filter searches for any these words,If found,it will blocked the page completely,stop downloading the page,block the banned words and even shut down the browser.

  1. Site blocking.This method use software to list the web sites that will be blocked by using software.The software also prevents users from being access the web sites on list.

  1. Web rating system.web sites are rating in terms of nudity,sex,violence and language.The web sites rates can be done by setting the browser to only accept pages with certain level of ratings. List effects of controversial contents on society: Pornography and slander


Pornography is a visual representation of sexuality which distorts an individual's concept of the nature of conjugal relations. This, in turn, alters both sexual attitudes and behavior. It is a major threat to marriage, to family, to children and to individual happiness. In undermining marriage it is one of the factors in undermining social stability.

Social scientists, clinical psychologists, and biologists have begun to clarify some of the social and psychological effects, and neurologists are beginning to delineate the biological mechanisms through which pornography produces its powerful negative effects.

  • Married men who are involved in pornography feel less satisfied with their conjugal relations and less emotionally attached to their wives. Wives notice and are upset by the difference.
  • Pornography use is a pathway to infidelity and divorce, and is frequently a major factor in these family disasters.
  • Among couples affected by one spouse's addiction, two-thirds experience a loss of interest in sexual intercourse.
  • Both spouses perceive pornography viewing as tantamount to infidelity.
  • Pornography viewing leads to a loss of interest in good family relations.


  • Pornography is addictive, and neuroscientists are beginning to map the biological substrate of this addiction.
  • Users tend to become desensitized to the type of pornorgraphy they use, become bored with it, and then seek more perverse forms of pornography.
  • Men who view pornography regularly have a higher tolerance for abnormal sexuality, including rape, sexual aggression, and sexual promiscuity.
  • Prolonged consumption of pornography by men produces stronger notions of women as commodities or as "sex objects."
  • Pornography engenders greater sexual permissiveness, which in turn leads to a greater risk of out-of-wedlock births and STDs. These, in turn, lead to still more weaknesses and debilities.
  • Child-sex offenders are more likely to view pornography regularly or to be involved in its distribution.


  • Many adolescents who view pornography initially feel shame, diminished self-confidence, and sexual uncertainty, but these feelings quickly shift to unadulterated enjoyment with regular viewing.
  • The presence of sexually oriented businesses significantly harms the surrounding community, leading to increases in crime and decreases in property values.
  • The main defenses against pornography are close family life, a good marriage and good relations between parents and children, coupled with deliberate parental monitoring of Internet use. Traditionally, government has kept a tight lid on sexual traffic and businesses, but in matters of pornography that has waned almost completely, except where child pornography is concerned. Given the massive, deleterious individual, marital, family, and social effects of pornography, it is time for citizens, communities, and government to reconsider their laissez-faire approach.


landerer is liable to be reborn in the lower realms and that if he is reborn as a human being, he will be at odds with his relatives and friends. The more he is slanderous, the more karmic harm there is in store for him.

Those who utter slander against wise and virtuous persons will have to pay dearly for their evil words. The karmic rewards for abstinence from slander are just the opposite. One who abstains from slander will enjoy heavenly bliss and on return to the human world will have happy and harmonious relations with his friends and relatives. Explain the need for Cyber Law.


2.8 Explain the NEED FOR CYBER LAW

is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of communicative, transactional, and distributive aspects of networked information devices and technologies. It is less a distinct field of law in the way that property or contract are, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction. Explain briefly the computer crimes: Fraud, Copyright Infringement, Theft, Attacks


Computer fraud is rampant, as the use of computers becomes part of our daily lives, with greater and greater frequency. The definition of what constitutes computer fraud becomes ever more complex with the ingenuity of people who intend to deceive, misrepresent, destroy, steal information, or cause harm to others by accessing information through deceptive and illegal means. Just as you have to be careful when you’re walking down the street, or in your own home when you lock up at night, you’ve got to be careful of the many examples of computer fraud that will make their way onto your computer.

Types of computer fraud vary and can be complex or simple. Simple types of fraud might include:

  • Sending hoax emails intended to scare people.
  • Illegally using someone else’s computer or “posing” as someone else on the Internet.
  • Using spyware to gather information about people.

These actions are computer fraud because they are deliberate misrepresentations of the truth. They progress into more harmful actions as they grow more complex and include:

  • Emails requesting money in return for “small deposits.”
  • Pyramid schemes or investment schemes via computer with the intent to take and use someone else’s money.
  • Emails attempting to gather personal information to be used to access and use credit cards or social security numbers.
  • Using someone else’s computer to access personal information with the intent to use such fraudulently.
  • Using the computer to solicit minors into sexual alliances.
  • Violating copyright laws by copying information with the intent to sell information, like DVDs, CDs.
  • Hacking into computer systems to gather large amounts of information for illegal purposes.
  • Hacking into or illegally using a computer to change information, such as grades, work reports, etc.
  • Sending computer viruses or worms with the intent to destroy or ruin someone else’s computer.

Copyright Infringement

Copyright infringement
(or copyright violation) is the unauthorized or prohibited use of works covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works.


The term attack can be used in a number of ways, from the more general meaning of an attempt by a cracker to break into a computer to deface a home page or to install a virus on a computer to the more technical information security approach of the term, meaning an attack to a cryptosystem. In the latter usage, a security professional is suggesting that a cracker is searching for weaknesses in the computer system that will allow him or her to decrypt encrypted information in that system.


Stealing the identity of others by using their credit card, drivers license, social security or other personal identification numbers. With "true name" identity theft, the thief uses the information to open new accounts. With "account takeover" identity theft, the thief uses the information to access existing accounts.

1.3 Computer Security Define computer security.

Method of protecting information, computer programs, and other computer system assets. Hardware security, which is the security of computer assets and capital equipment, refers to computer location, access control, fire protection, and storage procedures. Such measures as badges, electronic identification keys, alarm systems, and physical barriers at entries are used for this purpose. Software security entails the protection of software assets such as Application Programs, the Operating System, and the Data Base Management System and stored information. Special user numbers and passwords are typically used to prevent unauthorized access to software and data. In addition to security for hardware and software, good internal control also requires that measures be taken to prevent loss or accidental destruction of data. Explain briefly the different threats to computer security:
* Malicious code * Hacking * Natural disaster * Theft

Malicious code

Malicious code is the term used to describe any code in any part of a software system or script that is intended to cause undesired effects, security breaches or damage to a system. Malicious code describes a broad category of system security terms that includes attack scripts, viruses, worms, Trojan horses, backdoors, and malicious active content.


The word "hacking" has two definitions. The first definition refers to the hobby/profession of working with computers. The second definition refers to breaking into computer systems. While the first definition is older and is still used by many computer enthusiasts (who refer to cyber-criminals as "crackers"), the second definition is much more commonly used. In particular, the web pages here refer to "hackers" simply because our web-server logs show that every one who reaches these pages are using the second definition as part of their search criteria. Select the appropriate security measures to overcome the computer threats

SECURITY MEASURES (Biometrics Authentication)

~Electrical devices that sets of an alarm when someone tries to break in

  • To overcome any data and computer from any security threats.
  • To prevent unauthorised access.

  • Malicious code:
  • Viruses.
  • Trapdoor or backdoor.
  • Script kiddie.
  • Hacker.
  • Theft.
  • Natural disaster:
  • Floot.
  • Eartquackes.

  • PC-locks.
  • Keyboard-locks.
  • Smart card.
  • Biometrics devices:
  • Fingerprint recognition.
  • Iris scanning.
  • Facial recognition.
  • Voice recognition.

  • Activation code.
  • Security code.
  • Disaster recovery plan.

  • Firewalls. Apply the correct security procedures : Antivirus, Anti-Spyware, Firewall, Data backup

* Cryptography (Cipher text, Plain text), Human aspects